Questions & Answers

Here, we’ll provide individuals with engaging information and facts on the civic responsibilities, virtues, citizenship, and expectations of the Nigerian. This page is filled with relevant details to equipped anyone interested in Nigeria with constitutionally-based knowledge.

Citizenship is based upon the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, dated 1989. Those born before or on the date of independence, October 1, 1960, whose parents or grandparents were born in Nigeria and who were legally residing in Nigeria at the time, are considered citizens of Nigeria.

You can become a citizen of Nigeria either by birth, registration or by naturalisation.

The Constitution of Nigeria contains a very clear list of duties for the citizens of its country. Here is the direct text taken from the Nigerian constitution:

“It shall be the duty of every citizen to:

  • Abide by this Constitution, respect its ideals and its institutions, the National Flag, the National Anthem, the National Pledge, and legitimate authorities;
    help to enhance the power, prestige and good name of Nigeria, defend Nigeria and render such national service as may be required;
  • respect the dignity of other citizens and the rights and legitimate interests of others and live in unity and harmony and in the spirit of common brotherhood;
  • make a positive and useful contribution to the advancement, progress, and well-being of the community where he resides;
  • render assistance to appropriate and lawful agencies in the maintenance of law and order;
  • declare his income honestly to appropriate and lawful agencies and pay his tax promptly.

Step 1
At the polling unit, join the queue. An INEC official will check if you are at the correct polling unit and confirm that the PVC presented belongs to you.

Step 2:
An INEC official will confirm if your PVC is genuine using the card reader. You will be asked to place your finger on the card reader.

Step 3:
An INEC official will ask for your PVC and confirm you are listed in the Voters Register. Your name will be ticked and your finger will be inked to confirm you have voted. If your name is not found you cannot vote.

Step 4:
The Presiding officer will stamp, sign and endorse your ballot paper. You will be given the ballot paper rolled with the printed side inwards and directed to the voting cubicle.

Step 5:
Stain your finger with the ink given and mark the box for your preferred candidate/party. Roll the ballot paper in the manner you were given and flatten it.

Step 6:
Leave the voting cubicle and drop the ballot paper in the ballot box in full view of people at the Polling Unit.

Step 7:
Leave the Polling Unit or wait if you so choose, in an orderly and peaceful manner, to watch the process up to declaration of result.

N.B: The result of each Polling Unit shall be pasted at the unit for everyone to see.

  • be a citizen of Nigeria.
  • have attained the age of eighteen (18) years.
  • be resident, work in, originate from the Local Government Area (LGA), Council, ward covered by the registration officers of the Commission for registration as a voter.
  • be free from any incapacity to vote under any law in Nigeria.
  • present yourself to the registration officer of the Commission for registration as a voter.
  • not be subject to any incapacity to vote under any law in Nigeria.

The rights of every Nigerian citizen are entrenched in chapter four of the 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria.

Right to register:
It is the right of every qualified citizen to register to vote during the general elections. This right is guaranteed by the constitution and cannot be denied any potential qualified citizen.

Right to vote and be voted for when registered:
Every person who has satisfied the requirements laid down by the law is eligible to vote and be voted for. However, a voter will only be able to exercise that right if he/she is in possession of a valid voter’s card, his/her name is on the Register of Voters and he/she turns up at the polling unit between 8:00am to 2:00pm on Election Day.

To be voted for, a person has to put himself forward as a candidate for an elective office. This can only be done through the sponsorship of a political party.

Right to recall an elected representative:
A voter has a right to participate in the process of recall of an elected legislator. To recall means to summon back and withdraw the mandate given to an elected legislator through an election. A candidate once elected to the Senate, House of Representatives or House of Assembly can be recalled by the registered voters of the affected constituency.

Right to secrecy (privacy) when voting:
Voters have the right to mark their ballot papers (make their choices) in secret. The voting exercise in an election situation in most developing countries especially in Africa, South of the Sahara, is sometimes fraught with dangers and bitter conflicts. In order to avert assault and open attacks, polling booths often provide privacy and security for voters.

Right to attend Rallies and Campaigns of political Parties and Candidates:
A voter has the right to attend the campaigns of Political Parties and Campaigns during the build-up to general elections in order to receive information about the programmes they intend to implement if voted into office. This will enable the voter decide on which candidate to vote for.

Right to Information About Election:
A voter has a right to be informed about the details of the elections such as the time, date, procedure, etc.

Ideally, there are no rights without responsibilities. Responsibilities are those duties and activities, which the citizens of a state are expected to be involved in, to demonstrate their love, commitment, loyalty, patriotism and selflessness to the nation. Within the electoral process, such responsibilities are as follows:

  • Responsibility to register:
    It is the duty of every eligible citizen to register and ensure that his or her name is correctly listed on the register of voters in the area where he or she intends to cast his/her vote. This can be achieved by cross checking the Preliminary Register of Voters during display for claims and objections for any irregularity on the registrant’s details and acting accordingly.
  • Responsibility to vote:
    This is perhaps a voter’s most important responsibility. On Election Day, each voter is expected to take his/her permanent voter’s card and proceed to the polling unit in his/her neighborhood where his/her name is listed on the voter’s register.
  • Responsibility to conduct oneself in an orderly manner:
    For a free and fair election to take place, it is important that voters comply with all laws and regulations governing the electoral process so as to ensure peace and orderliness. Hence, it is the responsibility of the voter to conduct him/herself in an orderly manner before, during and after election and encourage others to act in similar fashion. Towards this end, the voter is supposed to wait for his turn on the queue, obey the directives of electoral officials, cast his/her vote peacefully. After casting the vote, the voter should leave the polling zone to avoid unnecessary clustering which may result in conflict. Grievances, if any, should be channeled through the appropriate quarters, using the legal machinery put in place, rather than resorting to illegal actions.
  • Responsibility to keep Permanent Voter Card safe:
    The Permanent Voter’s Card which is issued to every voter qualifies him/her to vote in an election. This card must be kept safe. It is not transferable. It must not be sold, given to another person or damaged.

To prevent the PVC from damage or loss, the voter must:
• Keep it safe and only come out with it on Election Day to cast his/her vote;
• Not sit on it as this can lead to the destruction of its antenna. A broken antenna makes the PVC unusable
• Keep it away from direct sunlight, heat, water or wet surface
• Not bend it.

  • Responsibility to enlighten others about the benefits of participation
    Voters should encourage others about the benefits of registering and voting during elections. This will help reduce apathy and ensure that a good number of voters participate in electing candidates into various elective positions.

The coat of arms of Nigeria consists of a black shield with a wavy white pall, symbolizing the meeting of the Niger and Benue Rivers at Lokoja. The black shield represents Nigeria’s fertile soil, while the two supporting horses or chargers on each side represent dignity. The eagle represents strength, while the green and white bands on the top of the shield represent the rich soil.

The red flowers at the base are Costus spectabilis, Nigeria’s national flower. This flower was chosen for inclusion in the coat of arms as it is found all over Nigeria and also stand for the beauty of the nation. On the banderole around the base is Nigeria’s national motto since 1978: “Unity and Faith, Peace and Progress”

The National Anthem represents the tradition, history and beliefs of a nation and its people. 

Nigerian National Anthem:

The National Anthem

Arise, O compatriots, Nigeria’s call obey

To serve our fatherland

With love and strength and faith

The labor of our heroes past

Shall never be in vain

To serve with heart and might

One nation bound in freedom, peace, and unity.

The Song of the Country The national anthem is a symbol that can move millions of hearts. The first anthem of Nigeria was written in 1960. Later the government of Nigeria decided to change it and announced a competition for the national anthem. The committee chose five winners and combined their entries into one. “Arise, O Compatriots” was composed in 1978. The music of Nigerian anthem was composed by Mr. Ben Odiase, the director of the Nigeria Band. It is the most important symbol of any country, as the anthem unites all Nigerians into one sovereign state. And that is its meaning and purpose.

A federation usually has the following features:

  • Governmental powers are divided between the central and component government
  • The country usually has a written constitution
  • The constitution spells out the jurisdictions of the various tiers of government
  • The country is usually a large one in terms of size
  • The legislature or law making body is made up of two houses- the upper and the lower houses.


Human rights are the basic rights and freedoms that belong to every person in the world, from birth until death.

As a Nigeria, we must say the Human Right Pledge

Human Rights Pledge

I will respect your rights regardless of who you are. I will uphold your rights even when I disagree with you

When anyone’s human rights are denied, everyone’s rights are undermined, so I will STAND UP

I will raise my voice. I will take action. I will use my rights to stand up for your rights

Human rights are the basic rights and freedoms that belong to every person in the world, from birth until death.

As a Nigeria, we must say the Human Right Pledge

Human Rights Pledge

I will respect your rights regardless of who you are. I will uphold your rights even when I disagree with you

When anyone’s human rights are denied, everyone’s rights are undermined, so I will STAND UP

I will raise my voice. I will take action. I will use my rights to stand up for your rights

  1. Every person has a right to life, and no one shall be deprived intentionally of his life, save in execution of the sentence of a court in respect of a criminal offence of which he has been found guilty in Nigeria.
  2. Every individual is entitled to respect for the dignity of his person
  3. Every person shall be entitled to his personal liberty
  4. A person shall be entitled to a fair hearing within a reasonable time by a court or other tribunal established by law
  5. Every person shall be entitled to freedom of expression, including freedom to hold opinions and to receive and impart ideas and information without interference.
  6. Every person shall be entitled to freedom of thought, conscience and religion, including freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom
  7. Every person shall be entitled to assemble freely and associate with other persons, and in particular he may form or belong to any political party, trade union or any other association for the protection of his interests
  8. Every citizen of Nigeria is entitled to move freely throughout Nigeria and to reside in any part thereof, and no citizen of Nigeria shall be expelled from Nigeria or refused entry thereby or exit therefrom.
  9. Every citizen of Nigeria shall have the right to acquire and own immovable property anywhere in Nigeria.

There are so many benefits of democracy but here are few,

(i). a democratic government is better because it is a more accountable form of government

(ii). it improves the quality decisions making.

the importance of Democracy is that Democracy provides the a method to deal with and conflicts.

Pillars of democracy are:

(i). Sovereignty of the people
(ii) Government based upon consent of the governed
(iii) majority rule and
(iv) minority rule etc